New Tesla 4680 battery — revolution or stagnation?

Posted by kachalo on 27 ноября, 2021 in sorghum | Short Link

The last presentation of Tesla Battery Day caused an ambiguous reaction. Someone wanted to see something more, someone does not understand, and cannot match the figures of the characteristics of the new battery element, calling them contradictory, at a minimum. Let’s deal with.

One of the numbers that caused misunderstanding is an indicator of an increase in the run on one electrocar charge, equipped with a new element 4680. The presentation was shown a slide where white was written «Range + 16%». «Range» is translated depending on the sense of supply as «range», «range», «distance».

So, about the battery it was said that it is 5 times more energy, increases the output power of 6 times, and the range by 16%. And also reduces the cost of the battery in dollars per kilowatt hour by 14%. What’s wrong here? Some of these indicators seem strange and not logical. Well, comrades, one thing to theorize, other, to make the product «in the gland». Make — compare!

As part of the Tesla Roadrunner project in Kato Road, a new private plant was built with new, pilot production lines for the production of new elements 4680. After working out the entire technological process, its production capacity will be 10 GW * h of rechargeable products per year.

Tesla continues to create a vertically integrated company, and its own rechargeable production is one of the most important parts of this process. To do this Tesla acquired previously large players on the battery field and supercapacitators — Maxwell Technologies and Hibar Systems. And attracted specialists in manufacturing equipment from Grohmann Automation. That is, it is necessary to understand that now in the Tesla battery division, professionals engaged in this theme of decades, and developing their businesses to transcontinental discharges. Now all this experience is working on the development of Tesla. But little to come up with a new element or form factor, you need to create a new technological process. What is done at the new factory.

Say, is it not revolutionary?

Some experts began to calculate the indicators of the new battery. Based on only from its physical proportions, doubting that, only increasing its size to a diameter of 46 mm and a height of 80 mm, it is possible to achieve a 5-fold increase in the accumulation of energy and a 6-fold increase in power. And that the dispute also caused, this is the most increasing range of 16%.

One of the results of these efforts is the new format of cylindrical rechargeable elements for the table 4680, which provides many advantages in productivity, production and cost of the table. As the name follows, the new Jumbo cells have a diameter of 46 mmi height of 80 mm.

A larger rolon with jelly places more active battery material into a housing for a 5-fold increase in energy accumulation and a 6-fold increase in power. With increasing package size, one only new form factor ensures an increase in the range of 16% — «Range + 16%».

The size, of course, matters, but not only the size, but also the internal architecture of the element and its composition. The element 4680 is a fundamental rewriting of the history of the battery elements in TESLA.

According to Tesla vice-president on Technologies, Drew Baglinino, in a new element, the use of silicon was an important element — «

Tesla approached the production of cathodes, which is called, with a clean sheet, when each step is optimized in order to minimize waste and costs from ore to the finished cathode. And it was very clearly shown on the presentation, what is the difference between the old technology from the new. This is not only a more rational approach, but also much cheaper and leads to a smaller amount of waste.

New Tesla Catoes with high nickel content completely eliminate the need for cobalt. From a chemical point of view, cobalt is an excellent material for the cathode, but serious problems arise with its production and application. First, cobalt is toxic. The less toxic materials have to be produced, processing and use, the better. In addition, it is difficult to provide a steady source of cobalt, since a significant percentage of global cobalt production is carried out in one country to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. And this is an extremely stable region, and besides there are significant reputational risks due to the production method, in which the labor of children is used. So here there are questions, in addition to chemistry, also economies, and ethics.

Cobalt is good for the battery, but not at all useful for the company seeking to increase the production of batteries up to 3 TVs to 3 TVTs per year.

The refusal to cobalt in favor of a high-nickel cathode also reduces the cost of the cathode by 15% calculated on the kilowatt-hour. It is great — the lower battery cost will allow producing more affordable electric vehicles. It also positively affects the subsequent recycling batteries.

Work on a new cathode led to a process that reduced the cost of treating a cathode by 76%. All this is done using a much smaller amount of equipment, which gives 66% of capital cost savings on the production of the cathode themselves. As a «glaze on the cake», a new process uses much less water than the traditional process. In fact, a new process leads to waste-free water. And this, by the way, is a significant factor for ecology. After all, many opponents of electric vehicles continue to firm that the production itself is environmentally dissatisfied. And as we see Ilon Mask and Tesla created new technology and a new production, environmentally friendly process.

The logistics process will also be changed, in the direction of reducing the cost of transporting raw materials.

Improvement that makes most of the hard work that allows you to use a larger form factor is the design of the filling. Removing the tongues (which are in the rolls of elements 2170 and earlier) reduces the internal resistance inside the cell caused by an additional component. Internal resistance means more heat dissipation, a more complex production process and a higher cost. In the new cell TESLA 4680 there is no inner tongue, instead, the tongue function is integrated into the roll with jelly, which provides a clean, uniform view of the end of the cell.

«

Focusing on the thermal advantages of the design of the new cell # 4680 TESLA — the new design allows the cells of the larger diameter to reach thermal characteristics similar to the characteristics of a smaller cell. In other words, they remain as cold as smaller elements, which allows Tesla to sneak more energy into the same physical volume.

Cells with larger tabs historically, they tried to remove heat at a very high charging speed. The new cell Tesla violates this trend, accommodating almost as fast as the smaller cell, but at the same time demonstrates all the advantages of a larger cell. Tesla was able to take the best of both «worlds», completely rethinking small, but the growing world of the production of batteries for cars.

And most important. New chemistry, element structure, solving overheating issues, increases its resource!

Above there was a lot of technical content. Most people never think about it. Battery cells are very complex, and the last change in the Tesla of the fundamental building block of electric vehicles and energy storage systems can be difficult to understand. Let’s simplify.

The new TESLA 4680 battery is a change of the paradigm of the automotive accumulation of energy. New items are much cheaper and can store much more energy per unit volume. They were recycled as structural elements of the vehicle, as a result of which the car became cheaper and hard.

At Tesla Battery Day, hundreds were presented, if not thousands of small improvements that make phased improvements to the fundamental construction block of the TESLA business unit — the battery.

So…

Total innovation associated with the new battery will give + 54% to the existing average range.

This will change the Game Rules for #tesla and will create a completely new generation of inexpensive electric vehicles. It all starts with a modest rechargeable battery. Tesla has achieved significant progress in rethinking battery elements and confidently launches new elements in production. Everything described above is to bring it to the level of the non-stop conveyor, the company will need 18 months.

And answering the question that delivered in the title, you can say with all the definiteness that this is a revolution.

The revolution is not only in the battery itself, but in general, in the approach to production and design.

In form

The presentation itself seemed boring, while it was extremely informative and detailed. But many who have no technical knowledge, I wanted more action, probably.

In fact

The holy gravity of battery technologies — cost less than $ 100 per kilowatt-hour — will be achieved and ready for production in less than three years. This means a significant reduction in the cost of the car and the real probability that after three years Tesla will present an electric vehicle for $ 25,000.

Technical breakthroughs and improvements presented during the presentation Tesla Battery Day mean a speedy and inevitable refusal of most of the global automotive industry from the engine and fossil fuel. The mid-20s will become a swivel, «Rubicon», after which there will be no way back. And no lobbying companies of individual concerns or states can no longer change anything.

If Tesla be able to achieve (and it is likely that it will be) volumes of production of batteries in 3 TWT-h over the next decade, the entire appearance of the system of automotive and energy sectors will be transformed.

The new paradigm that Tesla uses to create an «machine that builds a car» is innovative and is a significant improvement that will increase production capacity and reduce production costs. Tesla used vertical integration, avoiding suboptimization and making the entire production process more efficient. This paradigm will serve as a good omen for TESLA’s ability to produce cars and trucks in large volumes. Capital investments in production facilities (construction of own plants) will be less costly than it was originally expected, which will make a profitable company.

Tesla rushed forward again, leaving behind a greater «ditch», which will allow it to restrain even the most capable competitors. For example, Volkswagen only now begins to go to the trajectory of competition with Tesla. But in fact it turns out that the Germans will compete with Tesla today and yesterday, while Ilon Mask and his company have already jumped into the future.

Batteries are a key element for high-range electric vehicles, high-performance and inexpensive electric cars. Judging by what we saw, there is no other company that would even close to the battery technology announced during Battery Day.

Tesla and Ilon Mask care about what really matters — the basic technological infrastructure to create electric vehicles than about external «chic.» The main inner essence! For long-term success, it is really important — technical infrastructure and innovative developments.

Tesla does not stop there. While we all watched the construction of new plant plants, they worked on the creation of a new technological direction. They work to abandon existing methods and approaches to the design and production of electric vehicles, replacing them with new and best ideas.

Ilon Mask, his colleagues are in the constant process of generating and implementing new technical ideas. We see Tesla, we see Spacex. We see their tireless desire for improvements.


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